Mathematics is essential to everyday life, critical to science, technology and engineering and provides a foundation for understanding the world.

In Key Stage 1, Maths helps pupils develop confidence and mental fluency with whole numbers, counting and place value, develops their ability to recognise, describe, draw, compare and sort different shapes and use the related vocabulary. Teaching should also involve using a range of measures to describe and compare different quantities such as length, mass, capacity/volume, time and money.

By the end of lower key stage 2, pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations, including number facts and the concept of place value and develop their ability to solve a range of problems, including with simple fractions, decimal place value, shape and measures. Upper key stage 2 Maths ensures that pupils extend their understanding of the number system and place value to include larger integers and develop the connections that pupils make between multiplication and division with fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio.

By the end of year 6, pupils should be fluent in written methods for all four operations, including long multiplication and division, and in working with fractions, decimals and percentages.